Reverse Osmosis System

DUNIAPEMBANGKITLISTRIK.COM - The working principle of a reverse osmosis filter is based on osmosis events that occur in nature. Osmosis is the event of water moving from a solution that has a lower concentration through a semi permeable membrane to a solution that has a higher concentration until balance is reached. Semi permeable membranes can only be passed by micro molecules (ions).

The two sides of the liquid have different molecular concentrations where the aqueous solution has a smaller concentration than the concentrated solution. This is what causes the aqueous solution to move through the membrane toward the concentrated solution until the two solutions reach equilibrium. This is also called OSMOSIS.


Reverse Osmosis

R.O. (Reverse Osmosis) is a method of purification through a semi permeable membrane in which a high pressure (50-60 Psi) is given beyond the osmotic attraction so that it will force water through the reverse osmosis process from parts of high density to parts of low density. During this process, impurities and hazardous materials will be disposed of as polluted water.

Reverse Osmosis System

Water molecules and micro materials that are smaller than the pores of R.O. will pass through the pores of the membrane and the result is pure water. RO uses pressure to push the concentrated solution through the RO membrane to a dilute solution, RO is used to separate the liquid element from the material dissolved in it.

Reverse Osmose systems are increasingly in demand among the water treatment industry and housing to get clean water (pure water) because of the simple factor for the operation and maintenance processes.


The main part of RO treatment is PLTU :
- Disc Filter
- UF Filter
- Cartridge Filter
- SWRO
- BWRO

To maintain the reliability of the RO membrane, before water enters the RO membrane it is necessary to do a pre-treatment in the form of filtration (Disc filter, UF Filter, Cartridge Filter) or by the process of Coagulation and Flocculation

Block Diagram of The Reverse Osmosis System


Operating System on The Filter Disc

In the process of filtering impurities there are two phases of work that must be done in operating the disc filter, namely:

1. Filtration or filtering phase Is the working phase of the filter unit during the screening process during the process of filtering impurities in water.

2. Backwash Washing is a phase of washing impurities that stick to the walls of the filter element, by pumping or flowing clean water into the filter unit with the opposite direction of flow to the flow of water in the filtration or filtering


Ultra Filtration (UF)

The UF system uses a Hol-low Fiber membrane, so it can flow large amounts of liquid. This filter separates particles with a size> 0.1 microns that have passed through the Arkal. There are 2 trains, 1 train consists of 84 modules. In Ultra Filtration there is also an automatic backwash that is based on a timer, which is 30 minutes of production, stopping, then back wash which all take place in 1 train.

Ultra Filter

Back wash lasts for 210 seconds, with the details of the first 70 seconds of air flow = water, the remaining 140 seconds of water flow. The water that is accepted in this filter is accommodated in a UF tank with a production capacity of 125 m3 / hour. At the UF tank the level of Cl2 is checked out of Arkal.


Cartridge Filter

This filter filters particles with sizes > 5 microns. This filter is installed to anticipate if there are particles that escape the UF. Before entering the cartridge filter, water is injected with anti-chlorine, namely Na2SO3 and anti-scalant, which is poly carboxylate.

Cartridge Filter Construction

The purpose of anti-chlorine injection is because the cartridge filter has ingredients that are not chlorine resistant. When exposed to chlorine, the cartridge fiber will decay. While the purpose of adding anti-scalant is to prevent the formation of deposits on RO which is feared to clog RO and disrupt RO performance and efficiency.

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