Definition of Solenoids (Solenoids) and Types of Solenoids

DUNIAPEMBANGKITLISTRIK.COMSolenoida or Solenoid is an electromagnetic device that can convert electrical energy into movement energy. The energy of movement produced by Solenoid is usually only push and pull. Basically, a Solenoid consists only of an electrical coil wrapped around a cylindrical tube with a ferro-magnetic actuator or a Plunger that is free to move "in" and "out" of the body of the coil.

As additional information, what is meant by the actuator (actuator) is a mechanical device that can move or control a mechanism. Solenoids are also classified as a family of transducers, which are devices that can convert one energy to another.

Solenoids are often used in applications such as moving and operating robotic mechanisms, opening and closing doors with electricity, opening and closing valves and as electric switches. A solenoid that can open and close a valve is usually called a Solenoid Valve.

Types of Solenoids (Solenoids)

Solenoid is generally available in two forms, namely Linear Solenoid or often known as Linear ElectroMechanical Actuator (LEMA) and Solenoid Rotation (Rotary Solenoid).

Definition of Solenoids (Solenoids) and Types of Solenoids

1. Linear Solenoid (Linear Solenoid)

Linear Solenoids are electromagnetic or electromechanical devices that convert electrical energy into magnetic signals or mechanical motion energy. The way it works is the same as the working principle of Electromechanical Relay which can be controlled by using transistors, MOSFETs and other electronic components.

This type of solenoid is called a Linear Solenoid because the plunger or actuator moves linearly. This Linear Solenoid is usually available in two basic configuration forms, namely a Pull Type Linear Solenoid that can pull loads towards itself when given an electric current and Push Type Linear Solenoids which can push loads away from themselves when given an adequate electric current. In general, the construction and basic structure of linear Solenoid Pull Type and Push type are the same, the difference only lies in the design of the Plunger and the direction of the spring.

How Linear Solenoid Works

When an electric current is given to the coil, the coil will produce a magnetic field, the magnetic field will attract the Plunger inside the coil into the center of the coil and close or compress the spring contained at one end of the Plunger. The force and speed of the Plunger depends on the strength of the magnetic flux produced by the coil.

When the electric current is turned off (OFF), the electromagnetic field produced previously will be lost so that the energy stored in the compressed spring will push the plunger out to its original position.

This Linear Solenoid is very useful and is widely used in applications that require "Close" and "Open" or "Exit" and "Entry" movements such as electronically operated door locks, pneumatic or hydraulic valve controls, robotics, automotive machinery and irrigation doors.

2. Solenoid Rotation (Rotary Solenoid)

Most of the electromagnetic solenoids that we find on the market are linear devices that produce forward and backward forces linearly. But there are also Solenoids available in the form of Rotations which are used to produce angular or rotational movements from neutral to clockwise or counterclockwise positions at a certain angle.

This rotational type of solenoid can be used to replace the function of a small DC motor or stepper motor whose angle of movement is very small. Based on the angle of movement, Solenoid Rotations are usually available in angles of movement 25⁰, 35⁰, 45⁰, 60⁰ and 90⁰. There is also available in the form of movement that can go to a certain angle and then return to the starting position (zero position), for example from position 0 to 90⁰ then back again to position 0.

How Rotation Solenoid Works

Rotation solenoid can produce rotational motion when given energy or electric current or when changing the polarity of the electromagnetic field. Rotation solenoid consists of an electric coil wrapped around a steel frame with a magnetic disk connected to an output shaft that is above the coil.

When given an electric current, the electromagnetic field produces north poles and south poles that reject adjacent permanent magnetic poles, causing them to rotate at an angle determined by the mechanical construction of the Solenoid Rotation itself.

This rotational solenoid is generally applied to dot matrix printers, automotive machines and automatic equipment.

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