Coal Combustion System Inside Boilers

Coal Combustion System Inside Boilers
DUNIAPEMBANGKITLISTRIK.COM - The combustion system in the generation of steam power, especially generators that use coal fuel is a system that functions to break the bonds of hydrocarbons from coal to produce heat or heat energy by involving oxygen from the air as in the following chemical equation.

C + O2 –> CO + energy panas

Because in coal there are chemical bonds between carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur, in the combustion process there will also be a chemical reaction between oxygen and the chemical bonds shown in the chemical reaction as follows.

2H2 + O2 –> 2H2O

N2 + O2 –> NOX

S + O2 –> SO2

Furthermore SO2 together with H2O and O2 inside the boiler reacts and forms a chemical chain,

2SO2 + 2H2O + O2 –> 2H2SO4

The emergence of nitric acid HNOX and sulfuric acid as a result of combustion of Nitrogen (N) and Sulfur (S) elements carried by coal can cause environmental pollution so the amount must be limited and monitored through a device called the CEMS (Continuous Emission Monitoring System) based on the percentage of value has been determined by the Ministry of Environment.

Then if the oxygen given in the combustion process does not match the amount of coal to be burned, then the chemical bond of carbon (C) will burn incompletely and become carbonmonoxide as in the following chemical reaction.

2C + O2 –> 2CO

Burning that occurs imperfectly will also lead to several problems including:

- The emergence of soot or soot attached to the boiler so that it inhibits the process of heat transfer (heat transfer)
- Flue gas temperature becomes higher
- The emergence of unburned carbon (unburn carbon) in large quantities
- Fire pattern (fire pattern) that is not formed properly
- Causing an explosion in the combustion chamber (boiler).

Therefore to ensure that combustion can burn completely and most of the coal can be completely burned, the following four conditions must be met:

- Amount of air supply sufficient to burn coal
- Making turbulence when mixing air and coal
- Keep the boiler temperature high to burn coal mixture with air
- The large furnace volume provides enough time for the mixture of coal and air to burn completely

Ideally the combustion process can occur if the amount of coal and air in a certain proportion based on the principle of combustion stoichiometry. But the reality is that the mixture of fuel with air in the boiler is very impossible to achieve perfect conditions so that the amount of air is more than the air in ideal conditions (theoretical air) to ensure perfect combustion, or called excess air.

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